Lieb, Hans-Heinrich. 1993g.
Linguistic variables.
Towards a unified theory of linguistic variation.
Amsterdam; Philadelphia: Benjamins.
(= Current Issues in Linguistic Theory 108).

Lieb (1993g)
On this book
1    Linguistic variables
        1.1    An elementary question
        1.2    A concept of linguistic variable
        1.3    Comments and examples
        1.4    Classifying linguistic variables
        1.5    Component variables
        1.6    Holistic variables
2    Major approaches to linguistic variation
        2.1    Component approach and holistic approach (variety approach)
        2.2    Grammar approach and language approach
        2.3    Examples: grammar approach
        2.4    Examples: language approach
        2.5    Aim and scope of the present essay
3    An overview of syntactic variation studies
        3.1    A classification of current research
        3.2    Conclusions
        3.3    Old biasses. Syntax in dialectology
        3.4    Size of research. The role of theory
4    The diachronic perspective
        4.1    Languages as communication complexes
        4.2    Systems for communication complexes
        4.3    Different systems for a stage: example
        4.4    Chains of systems
        4.5    States of systems. Language development
        4.6    Lists of variables
5    Basic ideas
        5.1    The variety relation
        5.2    Details
        5.3    Variety structures as classification systems
        5.4    Classification criteria: external and system-based
        5.5    Criteria correlation
6    In defense of variety structures: the problem of idiolects
        6.1    Introduction
        6.2    Idiolects as 'external' and 'speaker specific'
        6.3    Idiolects as 'intermediate'
        6.4    Idiolects as 'homogeneous'
        6.5    Remark: concepts of homogeneity
7    In defense of variety structures: classification systems on historical languages
        7.1    Historical languages: general objections
        7.2    Historical languages: specific objections
        7.3    Classification systems: specific objections
        7.4    Classification systems: the problem of uniqueness
8    The variety structure of a historical language: overview
        8.1    The historical period division and the basic dialect division
        8.2    Problems of the basic dialect division
        8.3    Other primary classifications
        8.4    Classifications on historical periods
        8.5    Other non-primary classifications
        8.6    Summary
9    Variety structures as classification systems
        9.1    Divisions, classifications, partitions
        9.2    Introducing criteria
        9.3    Division systems, classification systems, partition systems
        9.4    Auxiliary notions. Theorem
        9.5    The notion of place
        9.6    Explication of "variety structure"
10    External criteria
        10.1    Example
        10.2    Criteria-determining functions
        10.3    Permissible types of non-language entities
        10.4    Points of view and criteria
11    System-based criteria
        11.1    The criteria-determining function
        11.2    Permissible types of systems
        11.3    Points of view and criteria
        11.4    Example
        11.5    The correlation theorem
12    Languages, varieties, idiolects
        12.1    Varieties and languages
        12.2    Properties of the variety relation
        12.3    Idiolect location in historical languages
        12.4    Idiolect location in varieties
13    Varieties and idiolect systems
        13.1    Location of idiolect systems
        13.2    Position of system components
        13.3    Variety-specific components
        13.4    Variety-specific properties
14    Variants and variables
        14.1    Introduction
        14.2    Orientation
        14.3    Variants of relations
        14.4    Variants of functions
        14.5    The notion of a linguistic variable in a set of systems
15    Reconstructions: Chomsky and Seiler
        15.1    On reconstructing Chomsky
        15.2    'Principles and parameters': definitions
        15.3    Discussion
        15.4    Parameter sets
        15.5    'Representation': reconstructing Seiler
16    On the conception of evaluation grammars
        16.1    Example
        16.2    The notion of evaluation basis
        16.3    A simple evaluation basis: rule status
        16.4    Types of evaluation grammars
17    Evaluation grammars, variable rules, and linguistic variables
        17.1    Rule-weight1
        17.2    Rule interpretation
        17.3    Rule-weight2
        17.4    The values of rule-weight2 as linguistic variables
        17.5    On reconstructing the variable rule approach
        17.6    Grammar-independent variables: quantitative and qualitative
18    Solving the integration problem
        18.1    Basic ideas
        18.2    Property determination by linguistic variables
        18.3    Specifying sets of systems by linguistic variables
        18.4    Example
        18.5    Permissible types of systems: integrating the component approach
19    Going beyond varieties
        19.1    A note on contrastive analysis and language acquisition
        19.2    Language typology: basic ideas
        19.3    Auxiliary concepts
        19.4    Typological structures and types
        19.5    Explanations
        19.6    Variety structures and typological structures
20    Grammars and their terminology
        20.1    Introduction
        20.2    Types of 'grammars'
        20.4    A sample grammatical statement
        20.5    Grammatical terms: non-linguistic constants
        20.6    Grammatical terms: linguistic constants
21    Grammatical statements
        21.1    Claim on simple grammar
        21.3    Complex grammars: a sample statement
        21.4    Claim on complex grammars
        21.5    Comparative grammars
        21.6    Grammars, typologies, and linguistic variables
Index of names
Index of subjects and terms
List of symbols and abbreviations